You win by checkmating your opponent and lose by being checkmated. A player may concede victory to the opponent at any time by laying their king on its side. In matches that end in a draw, neither player wins and neither loses. There are several ways a match might end in a draw.

Draw by Agreement

Both players may agree to declare a draw. Mutual consent is all that is required.

Draw by Stalemate

When a player cannot make a legal move, yet is not in check, the match has ended in a draw by stalemate.

Draw by Insufficient Material

When neither player has sufficient pieces to force a checkmate, a draw may be declared.

Draw by Repetition

If a player is about to repeat a position for a third time, that player may declare a draw by repetition. (The term "position" here means the precise arrangement of all the pieces on the board at a given time.) If the player who completes the third repetition does not declare a draw, the opponent may then declare it. This type of draw cannot be declared without an undisputed record of the match.

Fifty-Move Rule

If during the previous fifty moves no pawn has been moved and no capture has been made, either player can claim a draw. (For this purpose a "move" consists of a player completing their turn followed by the opponent completing their turn).